Smith, W. A., Hung, M., & Franklin, J. D. (2011). Racial battle fatigue and the “mis”education of black men: Racial microaggressions, societal problems, and environmental stress. Journal of Negro Education, 80(1), 63.
Black men’s lives are racialized contradictions, They are told that contemporary educational and professional institutions–particularly historically White institutions (HWls)–are places where, through hard work, they can achieve the so-called American dream. However, for far too many Black men, HWIs represent racial climates that are replete with gendered racism, blocked opportunities, and mundane, extreme, environmental stress (MEES). This study examined the experiences of 661 Black men. A structural equation modeling approach was used to analyze the data. Findings indicate that as educational attainment increases toward college completion, both racial microaggressions and societal problems contribute to more than one third of the cause of MEES. Results suggest predominantly White environments are prime contexts for producing racial battle fatigue among Black men. (Contains 8 tables and 1 figure.)
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