Kimerling, J. E. (1994). Black Male Academies: Re-Examining the Strategy of Integration. Buffalo Law Review, 42(3), 829 – 858.
The creation of all-black, male public academies has been proposed as a means to reduce the disparity between black & white education achievement. This idea challenges the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education & later decisions that direct public schools to integrate. Integration & equal education have not proven themselves to be synonymous, but when integration is truly attained & effective, statistics show that black students’ achievement levels increase. Integration also protects against race-based funding, which would mean that racially isolated schools could not provide equal educational opportunity. Before dismissing the nonintegration approach, it should be noted that racism does not derive only from separation. The all-black academies overcome other aspects of racism with their Afrocentric classes & integrated teaching staff; these principles should be incorporated into integrated schools. M. Pflum
Access to full article can be found here: