Davis, J. E. (2003). Early Schooling and Academic Achievement of African American Males. Urban Education, 38(5), 515-537.
African American males challenge schools in many ways. Perhaps the single most important challenge that has garnered recent attention in research reports, policy documents, and public commentary has been the increasing disparity in the educational achievement of African American males relative to their peers. Although other issues, such as the need to develop programs that promote school readiness, improving teacher education, and providing resources to meet increasing academic standards, are important, the implications for achievement differentials are even more far-reaching. The negative consequences of the achievement gap are more acute for African American males who are victimized by chronic, systemic levels of poor performance and behavior problems in school. In short, the potential loss of resources—intellectual, cultural, and economic—resulting from lower achievement reduces the capacity of African American males to be productive, integral, and contributing members of their communities.
Full article can be found here: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0042085903256220