Caldwell, L. D., Sewell, A. A., Parks, N., & Toldson, I. A. (2009). Guest editorial: Before the bell rings: Implementing coordinated school health models to influence the academic achievement of African American males. The Journal of Negro Education, 78(3), 204-215.
This article addresses a void in the literature that connects the wellness of African American boys to academic achievement. The authors call attention to ecological risk factors that impact the vulnerability of Black boys and compromise their learning even before the school bell rings. The No Child Left Behind legislation has created a culture where educational outcomes are placed before student outcomes. The authors posit that school policy, for example Coordinated School Health Programs that provide a holistic approach to addressing the academic achievement of Black Boys should be supported as innovation in education. The findings of the Breaking Barriers report as it relates to personal and emotional factors are highlighted; then the Coordinated School Health Model is outlined; and finally recommendations on how to implement Coordinated School Health Programs reflective of African American boys are offered.
Full article can be found here: https://open.library.emory.edu/publications/emory:rpt6f/pdf/