McMillian, M. M. (2003). Is No Child Left Behind ‘Wise Schooling’ For African American Male Students?. The High School Journal, 87(2), 25-33.
To improve achievement among African American students, education professions must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement. Specifically, research (Steele and Aronson 1995; Osborne 1995) suggests that education professionals’ “stereotypes about ability” are partly responsible for the disengagement and lagging achievement of African American male students. This author recommends that education professionals use ‘wise schooling’ to minimize the effects of these stereotypes on achievement. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Access to full article can be found here: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ728966