Howerton, D. L. (1993). Locus of Control and Achievement for At-Risk Black Males.High School Journal, 76(3), 210.
The relationship between locus of control and academic achievement was studied for 42 adolescent black males identified as at-risk by their teachers. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control scale (NS-LOC) for children was used as a measure of locus of control. School grade average and the Stanford Achievement Test (SFAT) battery composite provided broad measures of overall academic achievement. Specific content areas were assessed with school grades and SFAT scores. These at-risk students scored 0.5 to 0.8 standard deviations below their school peers based on average SFAT scores. Based on the NS-LOC, these subjects were more externally controlled than the normative sample of males at the same grade levels, which is consistent with previous results. Several significant negative relationships were found between locus of control and academic achievement. Results indicate that generalized locus of control can be a partial explanation of black males’ school performance. Perhaps school achievement would be enhanced if a more internal locus of control could be induced. One table presents correlations between locus of control and academic achievement. (SLD)
Full article can be found here: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40364580