Rowley, L. L., & Bowman, P. (2009). Risk, Protection, and Achievement Disparities among African American Males: Cross-Generation Theory, Research, and Comprehensive Intervention. The Journal of Negro Education, 78(3), 305-320.
In this post-industrial global society, parental and student role strains may exacerbate social-ecological risks and academic difficulties of African American male students. Therefore, school-based interventions must ensure rigorous preparation, promote successful navigation of social-ecological risks, and mobilize cultural-ecological strengths to improve student achievement. To clarify these factors this study reviews literature supportive of a cross-generation role strain and adaptation model and presents exploratory analyses of data from a nationally representative sample. The study utilized the three-generation National Survey of Black American Families available from the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample consisted of 331 African American male and female students ages 14-24. Implications for policy and academic interventions to promote successful academic outcomes among African American males are presented.
Full article can be found here: https://www.jstor.org/stable/25608748