Ross, S. I., & Jackson, J. M. (1991). Teachers’ Expectations for Black Males’ and Black Females’ Academic Achievement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17(1), 78-82.
Expectancy effects for Black males and Black females and a suspected cause of these effects were studied. Teachers responded to a questionnaire containing 12 case histories of hypothetical Black fourth-grade males and females. Teachers predicted students’ academic performance far the current school year and in the future and rated their preference for having the students in their classes. Results indicated that even when students had equivalent qualities, teachers consistently held more negative expectations for Black males and gave them lower ratings. Teachers had the lowest expectations for nonsubmissive, in independent Black males and preferred them least. Fear of Black males who are nonsubmissive and independent may be the cause of this bias.
Full article can be found here: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0146167291171012