Fitzgerald, T. (2006). Control, Punish, and Conquer: U.S. Public Schools’ Attempts to Control Black Males. Challenge – A Journal of Research on African American Men, 12(1), 38-54.
Policies and procedures that govern public education in the United States have produced a system of control and punishment that impedes the education of Black males. The historical antecedents of this system are reflected in various forms of racism, from denying education to enslaved Blacks through legal segregation in schools during the post-Civil War period. This study reviews the treatment of Black male children attending public schools in the United States. It focuses on contemporary policies and procedures related to special education, alternative schooling, and the practice of “medicating” children with behavioral difficulties to demonstrate how covert forms of racism in public education continue to control and punish Black males.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
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