Harburg, E., Gleiberman, L., Russel, M., Cooper, M. L. (1991). ANGER-COPING STYLES AND BLOOD-PRESSURE IN BLACK-AND-WHITE MALES – BUFFALO, NEW-YORK. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53(2), 153-164.
Data from a random survey of household residents in the urban area of Buffalo, stratified by race and education, showed relations between anger-coping styles and age-weight adjusted blood pressure (BP) among males (N = 720). Findings show that older black males with a high reflective mode of anger (constrain anger and try to solve the problem) had significantly lower blood pressure than those with low scores on this mode. In contrast, older black males with a high Anger-out mode (impulsive anger strongly expressed) had significantly higher blood pressure than those low on this mode. This Anger-out pattern was also found for older white men; but for young whites, only higher alcohol and lower education were significantly related to higher BP levels. An Anger-in mode (impulsive anger not expressed) was not significantly related to blood pressure. The limitations of the Anger-in measures are examined, and a concept of a resentful anger style is discussed and presented for further research.
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