Grantham, T. C. (2013). Creativity and Equity: The Legacy of E. Paul Torrance as an Upstander for Gifted Black Males. The Urban Review, 45(4), 518-538.
Nationally, Black males are more under-represented in gifted programs than all other groups (United States Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, Civil rights data collection. Author, Washington, DC, 2006, 2009); at no time in the history of gifted education can data be found to indicate otherwise (Ford in Multicultural gifted education. Waco, Prufrock Press, 2011a). Before, during, and after segregated schools became unconstitutional, a prolific scholar challenged educators to respond to the severe and pervasive under-representation of Black students in gifted education. This article illustrates how E. Paul Torrance was an upstander (Grantham in Roeper Rev 33:263–272, 2011) who confronted the crisis of under-identified talent among Black students which was, in part, due to narrow race- and class-based conceptions of intelligence. Specifically, this article calls attention to how Torrance valued different types of intelligence and used his scholarship to highlight Black male students’ creative gifts. Using Torrance’s body of work as a guide, implications for research, policy and praxis on creativity from an equity and social justice perspective will be discussed.
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