Hatchett, B. F., Black, L., & Holmes, K. (1999). Effects of citizenship inequalities on the black male. Challenge: A Journal of Research on African American Men, 10(2), 65-77.
Black men have been greatly affected by discriminatory practices in the areas of employment & educational opportunities — limiting their ability to participate fully in US society. One may go so far as to state that the treatment afforded many Black men may cause them to question their masculinity. The prevailing definition of masculinity in the social structure of this country is synonymous with economic prosperity & productivity. The masculinity of Black men is questioned when they are unable to attain economic prosperity, even though barriers prevent easy access to such goals. Black men often develop alternatives to economic productivity as a means of defining themselves as males & reinforcing their concept of masculinity. Some of those alternative means have resulted in situations that have had a costly effect on society as a whole in terms of human as well as societal costs. The rights & meanings of citizenship for Black men are examined here. 39 References. Adapted from the source document.