Harry, B., & Anderson, M. G. (1994). The Disproportionate Placement of African American Males in Special Education Programs: A Critique of the Process. The Journal of Negro Education, 63(4), 602.
African-American males have been disproportionately placed in special education classes since the 1970s, especially in racially mixed & lower socioeconomic school districts. Because placement is made on parameters subject to definitions of normalcy by given cultural group, as well as objective parameters, cultural bias in placement is possible & undermines the validity of the criteria used for special education placement. White females teachers, whose perceptions are grounded in a different culture, are making the referrals to special education classes. Special education classes for black males only serve to lower self-esteem & isolate the children even more from whites. It is recommended that the educational system be unified, that schools be restructured to prevent failure, & that assessments be conducted to guide instruction rather than to label students. 3 Tables, 46 References. M. Pflum
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