Noguera, P. A. (2003). The Trouble with Black Boys: The Role and Influence of Environmental and Cultural Factors on the Academic Performance of African American Males. Urban Education, 38(4), 431-459.
There is considerable confusion regarding why Black males are overrepresented in categories typically associated with negative behavioral outcomes. Drawing on research from a variety of disciplines, this article explores the influence of environmental and cultural factors on the academic performance of Black males. The article also examines the ways in which environmental and cultural forces shape the relationship between identity, particularly related to race and gender, and school performance. Finally, strategies for countering harmful environmental and cultural influences, both the diffuse and the direct, are explored with particular attention paid to recommendations for educators, parents, and youth service providers who seek to support young African American males.
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