Rodney, L. W., Crafter, B., Rodney, H. E., & Mupier, R. M. (1999). Variables Contributing to Grade Retention Among African American Adolescent Males. The Journal of Educational Research, 92(3), 185-190.
Variables contributing to grade retention among 243 African American 13—17-year-old boys were investigated. The instrument administered was the Children’s Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism interview scale, which pertains to alcohol use, discipline in the home, and conduct disorder. Results of the multiple-regression analyses revealed that 3 variables were positively associated with grade retention: (a) number of suspensions from school (the strongest predictor), (b) conduct disorder (violence against others), and (c) lack of discipline in the home. Thirty-one percent of the variation in grade retention was accounted for by the variables included in the model. Suggestions were made for alternatives to school suspension.
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