Brooks, S. N. (2011). city of basketball love: Philadelphia and the nurturing of black males’ hoop dreams. The Journal of African American History, 96(4), 522-536.
Brooks reconstructs the beginnings of African Americans in basketball and focuses specifically on Philadelphia, highlighting the local organization of basketball by African Americans who took advantage of this expanding athletic niche. Basketball leagues were first organized for men and boys, but girls’ leagues were developed shortly thereafter and spread throughout the East Coast. In examining the career of local basketball star and coach Claude Gross, Brooks explains the training that was available and the various levels of play in the city. He makes it clear that basketball in Philadelphia is a communal activity and for African American males this sport is a major contributor to identity formation.
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