Osborne, J. W. (1999). Unraveling underachievement among african american boys from an identification with academics perspective. The Journal of Negro Education, 68(4), 555-565.
Many theories attempt to explain why, despite all efforts, African American boys continue to lag behind their White counterparts. This article reviews three prominent theories addressing the social & cultural factors that can inhibit academic excellence among these youth: Steele’s stereotype threat model, Ogbu’s cultural-ecological perspective, & Majors & Billson’s “cool pose” theory. All three emphasize the barriers that prevent African American boys from incorporating academics as an important part of their self-concepts, theoretically explaining the achievement gap. The article reviews possible courses of action to facilitate identification with academics & thus improve achievement. 2 Figures, 55 References. Adapted from the source document.
Full article can be found here: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2668154